Copper sulfate is the means by which tomatoes were processed by our grandmothers. The relatively low cost, the prevalence of allow each gardener to apply it not only as a means of protection, but also to improve the immunity of seedlings. Improperly prepared solution and impaired concentration will lead to the death of seedlings and soil damage.
Composition and purpose
Copper sulfate is an inorganic substance, which is on a production scale referred to as copper sulfate. Externally, it is a powder with a high content of azure-blue crystals. It is well dissolved in water, painting it in blue color. The main purpose - the fight against fungal and viral diseases.
The drug has an effect on proteins, denatures them, completely eliminating the plant from the disease. Copper sulfate is used not only for processing crops, but also for processing premises (greenhouses), ground. It is not compatible with substances dissolved in alkali, as well as containing phosphorus or consisting of organic matter. Copper sulphate is often used as a fertilizer, as if there is a shortage of copper, tomato seedlings begin to wither, immunity and resistance are reduced. Vitriol will help feed the soil after harvest and prepare it for a new planting season.
Advantages and disadvantages of the application
The main advantages of copper sulfate can be considered:
- prolonged action - up to 1 month after processing the tomatoes will be under protection;
- multidisciplinary application that allows you to cope with diseases and viruses by 100%, covering not only tomato seedlings, but also the place of planting;
- low cost;
- economic consumption of the substance;
- the ability to spray the bushes with fruits and eat them after a minimum period of time.
Unfortunately, deficiencies in the use of copper sulfate are present. These include:
- overdose can burn a bush;
- It is difficult to determine the necessary dosage.
The effectiveness of copper sulfate is reduced if the air temperature is above +20 degrees.
Indications for use - from which diseases helps
Copper sulfate is able to cope with an extensive spectrum of diseases of the fungal type. The bushes of tomatoes below are most often affected.
Fast spreading fungal disease, covers not only the bush, but also the fruit with dark brown spots. An unpleasant putrid odor forms. Gradually the seedlings begin to dry out and die. Unfortunately, tomatoes cannot be saved at the stage of active growth of fungi. Only preventive measures will help here. Therefore, at the stage of formation of a full-fledged bush, process the vitriol in several stages.
Stage number 1. Treat with a 3% solution of vitriol in a container for growing seedlings a week before planting.
Stage number 2. As soon as 3-4 leaflets appear on the seedlings before planting them at different food tables, process the soil with a 1% solution.
Stage number 3. Fill in 2-3 days before landing in the ground, in the hole the solution of vitriol 1%. It will take about 1 liter for each well. Then fill the pits with earth and humus.
The disease is a fungal type, covering the bushes with stains and ulcers of irregular shape. Stains gradually lead to the death of tissues and the death of the bush. As additional features can be identified: peeling the surface of the stem, reduced fertility. For treatment, it will be sufficient to spray a 0.2% solution of copper sulfate (2 grams of copper sulfate dissolve in 10 liters of lukewarm water).
One of the main signs, in addition to the appearance of white spots on the surface of the seedling, is the desiccation of leaves, which begin to fall before the fruits form. The defeat of the bush begins from the bottom, but the middle of the stem acquires a grayish color. To combat the disease, in addition to removing the infected leaves, treat the copper sulfate. For elimination white spotting 1% solution will suffice (10 grams per 10 liters, suitable for processing a plot of 100 m2).
Copper sulfate Recipes
Despite the ease of preparation of the solution, it is necessary to choose the correct concentration of the substance in the liquid. This is necessary to prevent harm to the bushes of tomatoes. Signs of damage or “burning” of seedlings are:
- blackening of leaves from both the outside and the inside;
- slower growth and development.
It is sufficient for disinfection and treatment of a solution with a concentration not exceeding 1%. Stir 10 gr. powder in 10 liters of water and with the help of a garden spray handle the surface of the leaves of tomatoes.
It is forbidden to carry out this procedure in the daytime, as it can lead to the burning of bushes.
For this procedure you need a solution of 3%. Stir 30 grams of copper sulfate in 10 liters of water to make it. Pour the resulting solution into the wells or irrigate them the whole bed.
If you are not sure of the quality of the purchased seedlings, before planting in the ground, soak, for no more than 3 minutes, the roots in a 0.1% solution of vitriol (1 gram of the substance should be stirred in 10 liters of water).
Copper as fertilizer
It is used often, as every second crop suffers from a shortage. To saturate the soil, dilute 2 grams of vitriol in 10 liters of water. Note that 1 gram should be enough for 1 m2. To maintain the required level of concentration of the substance in the soil, make a solution every 3-4 months. The procedure is required for sandy, loamy and peaty-marsh soils.
Unfortunately, there is no 100% guarantee of the disappearance of disease disputes or reinfection. If you decide to play it safe and in addition to processing the soil and seed, you decided to disinfect greenhouse - use sulfur bomb. After it stops smoldering and producing smoke, do not enter the greenhouse for 3 days.
Recommendations will help you to better understand the preparation of the copper solution and prevent the most common mistakes.
- Do not use metal dishes, as regardless of the type of metal, it will react with copper, weakening or increasing its concentration.
- It is better not to carry out the treatment of bushes with already formed fruits, but if the disease diligently destroys the entire crop, disinfect the kusy in a week or two before harvesting the fruit.
- After harvesting, rinse the tomatoes thoroughly. Though copper and is not absorbed in plants, fruits, but may remain in minimal concentrations on the surface.
- You should not eat cracked tomatoes, if you have been processing copper sulphate.
- The drug has a hazard class 3 for bees. If there are any on the site, isolate for a day from the site.
- 3 class of danger and for humans. When working with a substance, use gloves and a protective suit (if possible). In case of contact with eyes, rinse thoroughly with water and consult a specialist.
- If the soil is highly fertile, then it is necessary to deposit copper sulfate into the soil no more than 1 time in 5 years.
- Do not treat on a rainy, sunny and very windy day.
Signs of substance poisoning are vomiting, nausea, and headaches. If detected - contact your doctor.
“I've been growing tomatoes for several years. When a fungus appeared on the site and the bushes fell ill, it treated the bushes with various chemicals and vitriol. I didn’t pay much attention to the weather. That year, accidentally processed from the fungus with copper on a hot sunny day and all the seedlings seemed to burn out. The neighbor explained that the infection can only be poisoned late in the evening or early in the morning, and the bushes will remain and the efficiency will increase. ”
“Tomatoes began to languish, fall to the ground. Outwardly, no signs of disease, fungi. The air temperature is average. I thought maybe the reason is that there are not enough vitamins. Fed the mineral complex the situation has not changed. Subtracted that the bluestone can feed the tomatoes. He dissolved several grams of substance in water and poured it into the ground. After a few days, all the seedlings were fresh, strong and green. ”
Copper sulphate, if properly applied, will not only save your crop, but also relieve the site of fungal spores of various diseases. A low cost, efficiency and safety can compete with imported drugs.