Autumn is a time when gardeners are engaged in the restoration of land fertility. Everyone has their own approach, and the goal is the same: everyone wants to improve the soil, replenish the nutrients consumed by vegetables over the summer. Particularly relevant is the autumn training of high ridges, they are stationary, require a special approach.
We use siderata
Potatoes, tomatoes can be planted on one high bed for several years in a row. To prevent pests and pathogens from accumulating in the upper layer of the land, green manure sow immediately after harvest.
Phacelia, planted in August after tomatoes, grows well. Cut it is not necessary, the first frost will put it on the ground, the stalks of phacelia will cover the soil with a solid carpet and protect it from freezing. Soil microflora under a layer of mulch is less affected by low temperatures.
The land, covered in winter with a layer of cut grass, thaws faster in the spring, you can start planting earlier.
Siderats - the basis of natural farming. According to his supporters, the land should not be empty. Immediately after the harvest, the high ridge needs to sow any health culture:
- radish oil;
- white mustard;
Low shoots do not cut, do not dig, they go into the winter without any treatment. Siderats, sown in mid-summer, in September, cut off if they are high and leave on the ridge.
While the temperature of the air does not fall below 15 ° C, a solution of the EM preparation is prepared; they are shed ridges. Biodestructors (Shine, Baikal-M) contain beneficial microorganisms that contribute to the decay of the tops. In the spring, when the snow melts, the remnants of undisturbed grass shift, the ground warms up quickly. The remains of last year's siderats mulch ridges.
Thanks to the autumn planting of siderats, tomatoes can be grown on one high bed for many years in a row. With the help of green fertilizers the crop rotation necessary for all plants is accomplished, the soil restores fertility. If the tomatoes were sick in summer, the ridge in September is spilled with an EM drug or a fungicide.
We put compost
You can restore the fertility of the high ridge with the help of organic matter. You do not need to buy it, compost You can do in your garden. Make a compost pile, fill it with plant waste in the summer, pour it with earth, water it with ripening agents, and organic fertilizer is ready by autumn.
You can not throw weed grass with seeds into a compost pile. Reduces the quality of compost tops of potatoes and tomatoes.
The ridge is cleaned of plant residues, cleaned irrigation system, if it was installed. The soil is not digged. The compost is spread in an even layer (8-10 cm), leveled with a rake, shallowly buried in the ground with a pitchfork or flat cutter. The seeding depth is about 8 cm. Composting can be done in a year.
By the fall, not all mulch under tomatoes pererevaet. If the layer is small, it is not necessary to remove it from the high ridge. After harvesting tomato bushes, mulch is embedded in the soil. It will perepret during the winter, will make the soil looser, increase fertility.
About the benefits of autumn mulching
The soil sheltered by mulch preserves winter fertility, its upper layer does not dry out or freeze. Coarse mulch provides real benefits:
- lowland peat.
The thickness of the mulch layer is from 6 to 8 cm.
In the fall, the high ridges are processed in the following sequence:
- Destroy perennial weeds.
- Loosen the top layer of soil.
- Fertilize with compost.
Fresh sawdust is not suitable, they have a high concentration of tannins. High beds before winter are covered with well-fallen sawdust. The best way to protect the soil from freezing is a layer of straw or hay.
Suitable for autumn mulching partially rotted vegetable compost. During the winter, part of the mulch will perepret, in the spring, the one that remained intact is raked, freeing the top layer of soil. It is necessary that the sun quickly warmed the ground.
High bed for tomatoes
The bed, on which in the summer grew garlic, carrots or onions, can be given in the spring under the tomatoes. Autumn is to take care of its fertility. For each square meter to make 0.5 buckets of well-rotted manure.
Using mineral fertilizers to restore the balance of phosphorus, potassium. Traditionally, gardeners make superphosphate and potassium nitrate under tomatoes in the fall. The best result is given by the complex fertilizer Fertika Autumn.
Packs weighing 1 kg is enough for 20 m². This fertilizer is suitable for any type of soil. Multi-colored granules contain trace elements necessary for tomatoes, phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen. Make them easy. Using a tablespoon of fertilizer to scatter on the surface of the earth (50-60 g per m²) and using a flat cutter, forks, choppers to embed them in the soil.
Methods of soil disinfection
Over the summer, pathogens of fungal diseases accumulate in the soil. Gardeners use chemical and biological treatment products so that the next season the vegetables do not suffer from powdery mildew, gray rot, late blight.
Biological preparations containing beneficial microorganisms are effective:
These drugs should be used at the beginning of autumn. Microorganisms work productively for as long as the air temperature does not fall below 15 ° C. Chemical means to disinfect high beds can be in the middle and late fall, but before the onset of frost.
- copper sulphate;
- Bordeaux mixture.
Any tool is equipped with instructions for use. When tillage, it is necessary to comply with the manufacturer's recommended rate of consumption of the drug per unit area.
Fertility of high beds is laid in the fall. Any vegetable crop will give good yields, if in the fall organic fertilizer, mineral fertilizers, and green manure are sown in the soil. Autumn soil treatment with biological products will clean the soil from pests and pathogens. Mulch will delay the snow, protect the soil from blowing, freezing.