To grow healthy whole fruits of tomatoes, gardeners have to constantly deal with various pests and diseases. A common cause of spoilage of tomatoes in the garden stands solanum miner. The pest settles on the leaves, but the whole plant suffers from it. How to protect solanaceous crops from the attacks of a miner? What if he still settled in the garden?
"Liriomyza sativae" - solanum miner, settles pest on solanovye cultures. Most likes tomatoes. Polyphage spreads in open and closed ground. In appearance, the Solanum Miner resembles an ordinary fly. The body of the insect does not exceed 2 millimeters. The back is gray-black, head, sides, lower abdomen yellow. Adults have a pair of wings that are on the back. Three pairs of black-and-yellow legs are attached to the bottom of the abdomen.
Females lay transparent beanlike eggs. Their length does not exceed 0.2-0.3 millimeters. Larvae of 2-3.5 millimeters are coming out of eggs. Their bodies are smooth, the head is not visible, they are painted in beige or pale cream color. The oral apparatus is powerful, at the first stage of development of black color, and before pupation it is repainted in yellow color.
The insect enters the winter in artificial cocoons in order to be completely reborn before spring, and fly out of them with the arrival of warm days. One female per season can lay up to 700 eggs. Makes egg laying on the lower leaves of tomatoes.
Symptoms and causes of the lesion
Insects feed on plant sap, which is released from wounds when females and males bite through leafy plates. The mass invasion leads to the death of leaves and fall. When the larvae come out of the eggs, they begin to gnaw the passages in the leaf plates. They are very easy to see white tunnels that resemble the usual winding stripes. They are called mines. With severe pest damage, the leaves begin to turn yellow and die off.
By damaging the structure of the plant, the ability to photosynthesize decreases. Tomatoes lose leaves, get sunburn due to the inability to retain moisture in the cells.
The main reasons for the spread of solanaceous mineral on tomatoes include:
- infected planting material. If the seeds are bought in Central or South America, Asia, then the likelihood that the tomatoes are infected is great, since there is a very favorable climate for their reproduction;
- other solanaceous crops that were infected by a pest were planted nearby;
- the season was very warm and not rainy, which allowed insects to reproduce freely.
Try to alternate systemic insecticides so that insects do not develop addiction.
Folk insecticides are ineffective. In the treatment of tomatoes from the Solanum miner, it is recommended to use insecticides that destroy eggs, larvae and adults. Before spraying, with one of the proposed chemicals, tear off all the leaves, where white stripes are noticeable, burn them. And then, treat any of the following:
- "Phosbecid" - a complex drug with an enteric-systemic effect, aimed at the destruction of insects and acaricides.The product is toxic, so use it in compliance with all safety regulations. Preparation of working solution: mix 10 milliliters of suspension and 10 liters of water. The resulting liquid is enough to process 5-6 hectares of tomatoes. The period of plant protection after treatment is 2-3 weeks.
Do not use "Phosbecid" in the flowering period of tomatoes. Store the prepared solution can not (this rule applies to other insecticides).
- "Actellic" - a chemical drug with an enteric-contact action. After spraying, plant protection lasts up to two weeks. The solution is prepared on the basis of 10 ml of the drug and 10 liters of water. Consumption of the mixture is 2 liters per 10 m².
- "Fitoverm" - one of the few drugs based on biologically active ingredients. Preparation of the solution: take a bucket of water, pour in 20 milliliters of funds, stir. Substances of the drug affect the nervous system pests. After treatment, the effect lasts up to three weeks in greenhouses, and up to two weeks on open ground.
- "Spark" - low toxic insecticide. Apply in the fight against a large number of insects, including the Solan mine. Dissolve 10 milliliters of the drug in 5 liters of water, spray the plants with the solution obtained early in the morning or in the evening. Not addictive to pests. Can be combined with other chemicals.
Prevention of the Solan Mineral
To prevent the occurrence and reproduction of the pest is almost impossible. All that is in your power is:
- very often monitor the state of plants;
- pickle with insecticides seed and soil, which will be planted in tomatoes;
- time to remove weeds in the garden to attract less insects;
- spray for the prevention of insecticide. Use biological products to harm less beneficial insects and the environment.
Whichever drug is chosen to destroy the miner, remember about safety. Be sure to wear a respirator, latex gloves. Do not treat tomatoes with chemicals more than three times per season.