A fungal pathogen that lives among last year’s crop and weeds, provokes stem rot. A few weeks after the start of the active phase of the disease, the plant becomes stained and fades.
Damage to the plant begins at the level of the stem, the surface of which is covered with brown and black spots. Over time, the affected areas become slightly depressed. Save the harvest is possible only with prompt and proper response.
The mechanism of disease development
Fungal spores are spread by water used by a gardener for watering. As soon as the pathogen enters the stem, it enters the active phase. The first symptom is small foci of black color. Within a few days, they multiply in size. In addition to changing its size, black foci are dangerous in terms of speeding up the spread of fungus. Every next black area is a new starting point, from where the fungus spores will go on a further journey through the seedlings.
A gardener should conduct a planting inspection every 10-15 days. More attention is paid to cups. Here, the first signs of stem rot appear most often. At first it seems that a small part of the stem is just too moist. After 6-8 hours, it will acquire a characteristic black tint.
If the gardener does not take any measures, the fungus infects the leaves. It starts with the characteristic small yellow spots. Over time, they merge into large gray-yellow areas with pronounced bright yellow framing. A gardener should know that every affected leaf is a source of spread of the fungus.
Preventive and therapeutic measures
The choice of funds due to the severity of the disease. In most cases, rely on drugs with high levels of copper. For every 1m2 landings spend 0.5 liters of the drug. If the disease is noticed at an early stage, then the choice is better to make in favor of more conservative means. Every 6 months, conduct heat treatment of the soil. Within 3 hours the soil is doused with steam, the temperature of which is + 10 ° C.
Gardeners who use a greenhouse for growing tomatoes, disinfect it every six months using sulfur checker "FAS" or "Climate". The recommended substance level is 60g / m3 or 300g / 20m3, respectively. After using sulfur bombs, the gardener conducts degassing:
- after using "FAS" - 2 days;
- after using “Climate” - 10 days.
Preventive treatment is repeated if stem rot is found on a nearby site. Preventive seed treatment before planting will help reduce the likelihood of fungus. In a specialty store, you must purchase any bioactive solution with a pronounced antifungal effect. In a small container add 4-5 tablespoons of the drug. Then the seeds are soaked in the liquid for 1-2 hours.
The biologically active substance "Alirin-B" has proven itself well. With it, prepare a solution for preventive watering. For every 5 liters of water requires ½ liters of 0.5% of the drug. The finished mixture is poured into the tank for watering. 1 plant spends about 150-180 ml of liquid preparation.The prepared solution is equally effective for watering before planting and at the stage of active growing season tomato. During season 1, 3-4 irrigations are made at intervals of 2 weeks. In addition to the substance "Alirin-B", you can take other biological active substances:
|"Glyocladin"||In each well put 1 tablet before planting. The recommended depth is 2 cm.|
|Sternifag||It is used to spray the soil after removing the remnants of the last crop. For every 1m2 100-150 ml of substance are consumed.|
|Fitolavin||As soon as 2-3 leaves appear on a tomato bush, water the plant at the root. For every 5 liters of water requires 1 liter of 0.2% solution. The first watering is made 48 hours before planting. The second - 2 weeks after disembarkation.|
At the stage of choosing a place for future landing, you need to take into account a common factor. Tomatoes are forbidden to have closer than 4 m from the planting of potatoes. The second tip is that after harvesting you need to burn all the remnants of last year's harvest. Weeds also need to actively fight. The following recommendations will continue the list of practical tips:
- regular watering: rare but abundant;
- regular fertilization using fertilizers;
- Do not overstretch the landing;
- opting for fungus resistant varieties;
- For planting seeds suitable seeds 2-4 years old.
Stem rot of tomatoes - a disease that develops against the background of the activity of the fungus. In most cases, the starting point will be gardener's mistakes. Improper watering and fertilizing, the lack of preventive treatment of soil and greenhouses, excessive thickening of plantings - only part of the negative factors. The faster the gardener will notice the brown spots on the stem, the greater the chances of saving the crop.