In the area of the stem of the tomato began to appear brown spots with a diameter of 3-4 cm? This is a clear sign of plant damage. This symptom may indicate the presence of tomato disease such as fomoz. It can quickly destroy the entire crop.
Phomosis is a disease caused by the fungus Phoma destructiva. In the affected area is the entire above-ground part of the tomato. The disease can be recognized by a plant by the following features:
- Tomato leaves are covered with small spots, which in color can vary from dark brown to black. Spots can grow in size and form concentric rings.
- Shoots are affected - dark or sulfuric areas can be noticed.
- At the very fruit, the lesion is noticeable near the calyx. First, small dark spots appear, which then increase in size.
The defeat of the fetus on the outside is much less than the inside, so the disease fomoz can lead to loss of harvest.
Causes of brown rot on tomatoes
Brown rot is a fungal disease that can spread not only to tomatoes, but also to other plants. To save the crop, it is necessary to eliminate the causes of:
- high content of nitrogen fertilizers in the soil;
- heavy rains;
- insufficient space between plants;
- too humid air;
- frequent strong dew, fog, wind;
- seed infection;
- temperature change day and night.
It is important to remember that disputes remain not only on tomatoes, they continue to exist in the earth, seeds, on garden tools, and also in the remains of plants.
Means and methods for controlling fomosis on tomatoes
To quickly get rid of brown rot, many gardeners use a variety of chemicals. Among the most suitable such agents as Fundazol, Previkur fungicide, Fitosporin, Tiovit Jet, Ridomil, Pharmacy Trichopolus, copper sulfate, Switch Bordeaux mixture, copper oxychloride.
Apply means for:
- Sprinkling bushes. Components are used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The first spraying is carried out until the ovaries appear, and then the procedure is repeated every 10 days.
- Watering plants. When watering means add to water. It is necessary to use a preparation through time not to exceed a dosage.
To avoid the spread of brown rot, burn all the remnants of plants on the site!
The fight against fomozom: ways
Copper sulphate for spraying tomatoes. You will need to take a bucket of water and 2 tablespoons of the substance. Dissolved copper sulphate in water, and then treated bushes of tomatoes. The procedure should take place before flowering.
In addition to copper sulfate, calcium nitrate can be used. At 10 liters of water diluted 30 ml or 2 tbsp. drug.
Among the products recommended by gardeners are Trihopol or the more economical option Metronidazole. For one procedure of spraying tomatoes, dilute ten tablets of the drug in a bucket of water. Spraying is recommended 2 times a month.
Folk remedies to combat brown rot
Garlic. For the solution, both heads and shoots of vegetables are suitable. They need to grind.1.5 cups of the mixture is dissolved in a bucket of water and left to infuse for a day. After the infusion, strain and add 2 grams of potassium permanganate. It is necessary to spray plants with such a solution just before the appearance of the ovaries, and then re-carry out the procedure every 10-14 days.
Very effective recipe - iodine and milk:
- one liter of milk and twenty drops of iodine are used per ten liters of water (the solution can be purchased at a pharmacy);
- components must be stirred;
- after which you can spray the bushes every 2 weeks.
Wood ash. Half of a bucket of ash is poured with 10 liters of water, after which they insist for 3 days, stirring the mixture regularly. Then the resulting solution is brought to a volume of 30 liters and add 35 grams of household soap (you can rub or replace with liquid soap). Such a mixture of tomatoes sprayed three times:
- as soon as the planter has taken root;
- before flowering bush;
- before the appearance of the first ovaries.
Superficial attitude towards the treatment of fomoz, can lead to the rapid spread of the disease throughout the site. Therefore, it is necessary not only to start treatment of plants in time, but also to carry out preventive measures.
Prevention of fomosis
There are a number of measures aimed at preventing the occurrence of brown rot. These tips will help preserve the harvest:
- To the disease did not affect the plants, it is necessary to plant tomatoes and potatoes at a distance from each other. Also, do not plant tomatoes in the place where the potatoes grew before.
- Do not forget about disinfection. Every autumn greenhouses need to be treated with a solution of copper sulphate. If the disease has affected seedlings, then in the autumn it is necessary to remove the soil in the greenhouse (about 5 cm).
- Quality selection of seeds. It is best to take the seeds of three years ago, as well as choose varieties that are resistant to fomozu. For example, Bohemia, Blitz, Opera F1, Spartak F1 and Virtuoso F1.
- Plant nutrition. Feeding tomatoes with phosphate-potassium fertilizers and blue vitriol should begin with the planting of tomatoes and continue throughout the summer.
- Watering. To save the plants from brown rot, it is important when watering not to get water on the leaves of the plant. To spend it is rare, but plentiful. After watering, it is necessary to air the soil to allow the top layer of soil to dry.
Any disease is dangerous for tomato bushes. With illiterate care, you can not only infect them, but also lose the entire crop. To avoid such diseases as brown rot, the gardener must follow the agrotechnical requirements throughout the entire life of the plant, as well as carry out preventive work before planting and after harvesting.