To disinfect the soil in the greenhouse, in the garden can be without chemicals. Current tasks: supplementing the nutrients taken out of the season, improving the soil structure, and disinfecting it with green manure for tomatoes.
With their help, the garden is cleared of fungi causing phytophthora, rot.
About the benefits of green manure for tomatoes
Cereal siderata have a powerful root system. The roots go deep into the earth, extracting nutrients there. They deliver them to the upper layers of the soil, improving the nutrition of soil microorganisms. Useful soil microflora helps tomatoes absorb nutrients.
The fertility of the soil grows when the aerial part and the roots of cereals are rotted through. In the process of natural decomposition of sideratov, the percentage of humus in the soil increases, this increases its fertility. The growth of fertility is manifested more brightly on sandy soil. They are the rapid leaching of nutrients in the lower layers of the horizon.
Cereals siderats can completely replace mineral fertilizers, as they provide tomatoes with nutrients necessary for the growing season. All the microelements necessary for the growing season, phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen, tomatoes are produced in sufficient quantity in a digestible form. The fruits grown on the soil fertilized with green manure are environmentally friendly. They do not have harmful compounds, they are more nutritious, tasty.
In terms of nutrient content, the green mass of cereals is not inferior to manure, and in terms of phosphorus exceeds it. It contains phosphorus, which is not in the classic organic fertilizer. Need to know about another plus of cereal sideratov. They help to clear the garden land from weeds, as they inhibit their growth.
When comparing the two types of siderates of cereals and legumes, the advantages of the first can be noted:
- in the greenness of the cereals, the percentage of carbon is higher than in the aerial part of legumes, therefore the decomposition process proceeds more slowly, which contributes to a better accumulation of humus in the fertile layer;
- the release of nutrients occurs slowly, cereal siderats are attributed to fertilizers with prolonged action.
In order to increase the desired volume of green mass, the gardener will have to work:
- cut off the above-ground part at the right moment;
- feed mineral mixtures containing nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus;
- plan a landing, observing a crop rotation.
Types of cereal for tomatoes
To restore the soil in the greenhouse, in the garden help the cereal siderats. Summer residents practice sowing rye, oats, barley, ryegrass. Each culture has its own characteristics of planting and growing.
A special substance secreted by rye roots helps to get rid of nematodes.
Rye sown from late summer to late September. The culture is not afraid of frosts, it winters well. Green shoots appear in autumn, they are left until spring. As soon as the snow melts, the rye turns green, grows, actively increases the green mass, and inhibits the growth of weeds. 3 weeks prior to the planting of tomato seedlings, the above-ground part is cut, crushed, buried in the ground during the preparation of the ridges.
Oats can be planted on the soil of any structure. He supplies it with the necessary elements of tomatoes. The first increase in the content of potassium and phosphorus. It is useful to plant oats on heavy soils, they become loose, it is better to carry out air, moisture.
Oats are not cold-resistant culture. Sow it in early spring (after the snow melted), in early autumn (September). The consumption of green manure seeds per square meter is 10 g, the embedding depth is 4 cm. Oats perform the functions of a natural fungicide. The substance that kills fungi, bacteria, is produced in its roots.
Barley planted spring and winter. It is planted with specific goals:
- replenish the content of humus in the soil;
- weed suppression;
- improving soil aeration;
- prevent soil erosion;
- remove excess nitrates.
Pros of barley: low cost, ease of cultivation, a short growing season, drought tolerance. Sow the culture in a wet soil in the winter before the onset of November, in early spring. The depth of the backfill when planting 3-6 cm.
Ryegrass improves drainage, the mechanical composition of the soil, contributes to the accumulation of nutrients, prevents the growth of weeds. The culture quickly grows, well accumulates nitrogen, can grow on depleted, clay (overmoistened) soils. In the autumn, it is sown 1.5 months before the start of stable frosts. In the summer of culture can be sown to the tomatoes at the beginning of flowering. In the spring, the siderata is planted 6 weeks before planting.
How to close the green manure
It works as a green manure when fertilizing vegetative mass in the soil. Allow overgrowth, flowering of grain crops is not worth it. Good soil gives accumulated nutrients to young plants.
|oats||before the spikelets appear in oats, the root is cut at a depth of 5 cm and embedded in the ground|
|rye||when the aerial part grows to 30 cm, the grass is mown under the root, buried in the soil, cut stems can be used as mulch|
|barley||mow before the appearance of the first tubes|
Cereals work better in mixtures: oats + peas + barley, rye + vetch.
When incorporating green mass of green manures into the soil, the following rules are followed: the layer thickness should not exceed 2 cm. With a larger amount of organic fertilizer, the mass will begin to acid, this will lead to the active reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms.
Siderata before and after tomatoes
In August, after harvesting, removal of plant residues, you can plant any mixture of green manure:
- white mustard to clean the ridge from infection;
- lupine, phacelia, alfalfa, they normalize acidity, disinfect, increase fertility.
With the onset of warm spring days in the garden, where tomatoes will grow, they sow legumes:
From the time of sowing to planting seedlings should take at least 1.5 months. At the same time, clover and sweet clover can be sown as a green fertilizer for tomatoes.
Before sowing cereal siderats before winter, find out which can be used in your area. For better results, use a mixture of legumes for sowing. In arid regions, one should not forget about watering. The soil under the tomatoes will be excellent if the site is sown with green manure for a whole season. From spring to autumn, you can sow and mow plants that grow to a maximum height 5 times. Rested for the year, fully fertilized soil will thank for the next year a rich harvest of tomatoes.