Feed stone fruit trees, in particular, pears and apples, in the autumn is carried out in order to compensate for the deficiency of nutrients in the soil and to prepare the plant for the winter. Every gardener should know that it is imperative to apply fertilizer before winter, because this is a guarantee of a future abundant harvest.
Plan for preparing apples and pears for wintering and inspection of trees
After harvesting and fallen leaves, the grower should conduct an audit of his trees and identify the presence of areas affected by lichen and insects and apply measures to their destruction:
- Moss and lichen gently clean off the trunk, after putting on the ground near a circle of a newspaper or film. After the moss is peeled off, it must be burned.
- Remove old, broken and dry branches. The branches infected with diseases are also destroyed, and the cut is processed by garden pitch.
- After pruning has passed, the trunks must be treated with an antiseptic, which is sold in special shops for the garden.
Autumn top dressing and tree fertilizer
For autumn feeding gardeners prefer fertilizers in a dry form. Liquid fertilization is still left in the spring. Time to feed the bone tree varieties - September-October.
The most popular tool for autumn feeding is manure. Before use, it must be kept at least 4-5 months, but better - 2-3 years. Bring it in the process of digging the soil - 8 kg / m². But this is not the only method. You can also use a solution of manure - 3 kg / 10 l of water, which is watered the soil under the tree.
From the folk means of fertilizing pears use wood ash, which is scattered in the near-stem circle:
- Gardeners recommend at a distance of 1.5 meters from the trunk in a circle to dig 10-12 holes 15 cm deep.
- Add organic matter to them, and then fall asleep with a lump of earth.
- For each m² to make 150 g of ash.
- After making the need to mulch the soil.
Also for feeding pears or apple trees use humus at the rate of 30-50 kg per 1 adult tree. The application technique is the same, but it should be embedded in the soil to a depth of 15-20 cm.
The gardener determines the introduction of mineral dressings independently, based on the yield of the current season:
- The fruits are small, and the foliage twisted and quickly fell off - it means potassium deficiency. In this case, you can help the tree by applying potassium-containing fertilizers.
- The foliage became thicker and darker, and the fruits had an atypical shape - boron deficiency, which can be filled by spraying with boric acid (10 to 20 g of acid per 10 l of water).
- The standard top dressing with minerals is the addition of 10–15 g of potassium monophosphate to 10 liters of water or 30 g of potassium sulfate in the soil of a tree trunk circle in liquid form.
- Once every 3 years you can feed with superphosphate - 30 g per 1 m2 of land near the trunk.
In the autumn, it is prohibited to feed fruit trees with nitrogen-containing fertilizers, because they provoke enhanced growth, which negatively affects the preparatory period of the plant for the winter.
Such plants hibernate badly and may die.
In order to prevent the development of diseases in winter and to protect trees from insect damage, it is necessary to treat trunks and crown with antiseptic preparations in the autumn:
- 3% solution of copper sulphate or 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture;
- If necessary, treatment should be carried out with strong chemicals - 1% solution of DNOCa or 3% solution of Nitrofen.
Insecticides can also be used to control insects - Dichlorvos, BI-58, and fungicides to fight against diseases - HOM (30 g per 10 l of water), Oksihom (20 g per 10 l of water). And also for the destruction of insects and their larvae from the bark of the tree it is necessary to paint the trunks with fresh-quenched lime, which will help to burn out all the larvae of future insects.
If the gardener does not use pesticides in the garden, then the treatment is carried out with a solution of the composition of mineral fertilizers:
- 5% carbamide;
- 7% ammonium nitrate;
- 15% ammonium sulfate.
How and when to properly prune apples and pears in the fall
Autumn pruning begins after the foliage from the trees, - mid-end of November. The columnar apple is pruned either in winter or at the very beginning of summer.
Sanitary pruning is carried out only at positive air temperatures, because when the frost is cold, the wounds freeze after pruning, which leads to the death of the branches.
Pear is better to cut in early spring, when the air is heated to a temperature of +8 degrees, and if the pruning is carried out in the fall, then you need to do it in September. It is necessary to form a crown of a pyramidal shape - this facilitates harvesting.
If, after trimming, the temperature outside for 2-5 days does not decrease less than + 10-11 degrees, then the slices dry better in air. After the cuts after pruning the pear or apple have dried, they need to be abundantly smeared with drying oil or garden pitch and wrap with a sack of burlap.
Proper care and nutrition of pears and apples in the fall is a guarantee of a bountiful harvest for the next season.