In the country you can grow domesticated and forest mushrooms. Well, if the trees grow on the site. Under them, it is easier for the mycelium to create the necessary conditions for growth. Similarities of the forest microclimate are created by pine-trees - pine, spruce and deciduous trees - oak, aspen, birch. The soil for planting needs to be prepared according to certain rules, buy a mycelium or harvest in the forest.
All hat mushrooms grown in the country can be divided into two groups. One includes parasitic fungi, they live on tree trunks. These are well-known, popular now oyster mushrooms and wild mushrooms. The second, more extensive group includes mycorrhizal fungi. These are boletus, chanterelles, boletus boletus, aspen mushrooms, saffron milk mushrooms and beloved mushrooms.
The symbiosis of fungi with plant roots is called mycorrhiza.
Their mycelium braids the roots of trees, consumes vegetable sugars that they secrete in the process of life. Due to them form fruit bodies. Different from all champignons. They do not form mycorrhiza. They do not need trees to form fruit bodies. They are easily bred under artificial conditions.
How to propagate wild mushrooms
There are several ways of reproduction of forest mushrooms, all are quite simple. Some summer residents find a mycelium in the forest, transfer it to their site. Others collect young mushrooms, prepare a solution from them and water a prepared garden bed to them, some use spores. The easiest option is to buy ready-made mycelium.
Wild Mycelium Transplant
The mushroom season begins in the autumn, the bed for planting mushrooms is prepared before its onset. Choose a place in the shade, retreating from a tree trunk 50-60 cm, dig a trench at least 30 cm deep. In the forest, plant residues are collected, which fill the future garden bed:
- conifer needles;
- rotten wood.
All this is mixed, add cow dung and poured into the dug ditch. The mixture is spilled with a 1% solution of ammonium nitrate. Substrate matures about a month. It is covered with cellophane to accelerate overheating, loosen once a week. Before planting on the ridge add garden soil.
Mushrooms are found in the forest, they dig up a bed measuring 30x30x10 cm (length * width * height). Carefully transfer it to the country, divided into several parts, planted to a depth of 5 cm. Watered watered, fall asleep with a layer of foliage and needles. The soil is kept moist. In the winter they mulch the fallen leaves.
Mycorrhiza mushrooms with spruce, chanterelles - with pine, birch, beech, oak.
After 2-3 years, and the next fall, the first mushrooms are collected. Wild mycelium gives fruit bodies for 5 years. Chanterelles in the country are planted under oak or beech. Maslyat like conifers, and boletus and aspen birds live well near the birch trees.
White mushrooms in the forest grow under different trees. The beds are made under birch trees, if they took a mycelium in a deciduous forest. Placed under the pines, if dug it in the forest.
Morels in the apple orchard
The first morels appear in April, these are spring mushrooms. Beds for them can be done in the garden next to the apple trees. For planting you need to gather up the young morels. They do not need to cut. To obtain high-quality planting material, mushrooms must be carefully broken out along with the root.
In the apple orchard in advance prepare the substrate for the ridge, mix:
- wood ash - 1 part;
- leaves - 1 part;
- sawdust - 3 parts;
- garden land - 6 parts.
It is placed in a trench dug to a depth of 15 cm, well watered. Collected mushrooms are crushed, scattered on the surface of the bed. Fill the substrate with a layer of 5-6 cm. Moisturize the soil in the summer, mulch apple juice. For the winter fall asleep with straw and fallen leaves. In the spring part of the shelter is removed.
During spring planting, the first morels appear by the end of summer, if they were planted in the summer - a year later, in the spring. Mushroom plantation works for several years. From spring to autumn, the ridge should be watered, fertilized with ashes.
Champignon mushroom grows well with high humidity on any fertile substrate. Bright lighting for the formation of fruit bodies is not required. Ridge prepare in the spring, as soon as the soil thawed on the spade bayonet. They dig a trench, fill it with humus mixed with straw.
Substrate abundantly moisturize, sprinkled with 4-6 cm layer of garden soil. Overheating the straw will generate heat. The substrate is ready for colonization by the mycelium when its temperature at a depth of 4 cm is between 27-28 ° C.
Planting technology depends on the type of planting material. You can purchase mycelium (dung, grain) or find wild mycelium, use it as seedlings. Purchased planting material (cereal mycelium) is planted as follows:
- part of the covering layer (3 cm) is removed from the entire area of the ridge;
- distribute mycelium over the entire surface;
- fall asleep compost.
Mycelium and purchased dung mycelium is divided into pieces, planted in cavities made in the ridge, covered with compost. The thickness of the backfill is 2-3 cm. Farmers who grow mushrooms for sale, produce the mycelium themselves, colonize the spores in the agar (grain, carrot, beer wort), observing a special technology.
What mushrooms are grown in the country disputes
Spores ripen in caps, especially in overripe mushrooms. To prepare a spore suspension from the bottom of the caps, the tubular layer is separated, scrolled in a meat grinder. At 10 liters of solution you need to wind 1-2 kg of mushroom mass.
Baker's yeast stimulates spore germination.
Dry yeast is added to the container with the solution - 15 g. The liquid is stirred, insisted at a temperature of 23-25 ° C for 14 days. By the end of the term the solution will stratify:
- at the top of the pulp, foam and small debris;
- in the center is almost clear liquid;
- bottom layer of spores a few centimeters thick.
The first and second layers are not needed. They are carefully drained, and the sediment with spores is poured into a smaller container and stand for another week. After that, the liquid that has collected on top is drained, and the suspension with spores is poured into plastic bottles. Store the suspension in the refrigerator, sow it to the ridge.
Spores in the country grow:
- White mushrooms;
- aspen birds;
Suspension of spores before sowing diluted with water 1: 100. In summer, the mushroom beds are looked after. Watered with warm water sprinkling method, in the heat they are closed from the sun. Moisture is needed for the development of mycelium and the formation of fruit bodies. The care is simple, so it is interesting and easy to grow mushrooms in the country.