Before planting potatoes in the spring, planting material must be prepared. To do this, conduct a special procedure - vernalization. It promotes rapid germination, reduces the likelihood of developing infectious diseases and increases the yield. In addition to this method, potatoes are prepared by placing in a dark and cold place, but this method has many disadvantages.
What is vernalization
Vernalization involves placing the seed in special conditions - a room with a low temperature (up to 10 ° C). This helps the vegetable to adapt and germinate better. Vernalization lasts about a month.
Potato tubers - a modified shoots, they have buds, later from which the stems are formed. These buds are hidden in potato eyes. But for the growth process to go, they need to be awakened. It is for this purpose that vernalization is used. During it, the tubers begin the process of delivering nutrients to the kidneys, they awaken and begin to grow.
The result of vernalization are large strong shoots, their length reaches 2 cm.
And when the potatoes are placed in the ground (planted), these small shoots emerge very quickly from the ground.
Step-by-step description of the experiment on the usual vernalization of potatoes at home
There are five steps that collectively make up vernalization:
- Selection of material for landing. Tubers should be about the same size. It is better to choose an average potato, flat, spotless, undamaged, not rotting.
- Warming up To do this, you can put the boxes of potatoes in a warm place (up to 25 degrees) for two days. You can also send the material in hot water (45 degrees) for an hour, add liquid as it cools.
- Disinfection. It is necessary for disinfection so that the potatoes are not susceptible to diseases. For this, the tubers are placed for 40 minutes. in solution of potassium permanganate. It is prepared at the rate of 10 liters of water per 0.5 g of potassium permanganate.
- Nutrition. A nutrient mixture is poured into the pelvis, which consists of such ingredients as ash (a couple of kg), chicken manure (1.5 kg), water (20 l). Bathing time is half an hour. At the same time every 5 minutes it is necessary to agitate the potatoes in water and turn. After that, it must be dried.
- Germination. Potatoes are placed in 3-liter jars, plastic bottles with cut-top or wooden boxes. At the same time it is necessary to stack not too tightly.
At first (1.5 weeks), the container is kept in a room with 18 degrees, then cleaned to where the temperature is about 12 ° C. The room should be diffused light: it will help the development of corned beef - a green pigment; it is poisonous, but it strengthens the tubers and makes them more resistant to negative factors.
The method of placing seed potatoes in a dark and cool place before planting
There is another way to germinate "seeds."It lies in the fact that the selected potatoes are placed in a dark and cool room for 15-20 days.
However, it is recommended to use this method in extreme cases, because it has many drawbacks, the sprouts are not very strong, the shoots have to wait much longer.
Sprouting potatoes in the dark - not the right decision for gardeners. He has more negative moments than positive ones. As shown by the experiment, the shoots are able to strongly stretch and weaken, they are fragile and break. In addition, the potato is deprived of light hardening. And some specimens do not germinate in the future. Plain vernalization is a more effective method of preparation.