If on the tops of the seedlings appear yellow and dried leaves, you need to quickly identify the cause and remove the problem. In most cases, the problem is solved. The reason may be in the wrong watering, illiterate feeding or diseases. On this basis, it is necessary to study the bushes and start taking measures to improve the health of the sprouts - to apply fertilizer, create a favorable microclimate.
Growing strong and healthy seedlings is the basis of a good and rich harvest. Making mistakes while caring for sprouts can have a negative effect on ovary formation, fruiting and ripening. Tomato - unpretentious culture. Seeds have a high germination rate, the seedlings grow and develop very well. From the inexperience of the gardener can occur dry tips of foliage and abscission. There are several main factors:
- Lack of sufficient watering.
- Low humidity concentration.
- Deficiency of beneficial trace elements.
- Education fungal disease.
- Pest attack.
- Increased soil moisture.
- Illiterate transfer to the garden bed.
- Direct contact with UV rays, which causes burns on the foliage.
All the listed root causes seriously threaten the future bush of tomatoes. If you do not take the right measures and do not eliminate the problem, it is unlikely that you will be able to grow a quality crop.
Solutions to problems
Tomatoes - a culture that prefers a moist environment, which requires regular watering. When the dried root system is a violation of good nutrition of the plant, which leads to drying and abscission of foliage. The first sign of a lack of moisture is the drying up of the apex and yellowness on the lower leaflets, which quickly spreads over the entire leaf plate.
It is equally important to maintain optimum humidity. It is strictly forbidden to install seedlings near heating devices. The flow of warm air flow has a negative effect on the sprouts, as:
- on the soil there is a crust that prevents aeration of the roots;
- there is a violation of metabolic processes in the tissues of the seedling.
To address the situation is to follow a number of recommendations.
- Seedlings watered abundantly so that the root system is completely soaked.
- Subsequent watering should be done if the top layer of the soil is well dried out.
- Loosen the ground between irrigation to increase breathability.
At the germination stage, this culture needs to be watered abundantly, but rarely. To increase the humidity of the air around the green pots and heating devices, water containers should be placed, which will increase the amount of moisture evaporation.
It is forbidden to spray the foliage. This leads to the formation of fungus on their surface.
To eliminate soil transfusions, seedlings should be transplanted into a fresh substrate, and each root should be carefully inspected. Those who have an unhealthy appearance and a weak root system do not use. They are unlikely to become good and strong bushes with excellent fruiting. The soil for transplanting sprouts should be:
- spill solution of potassium permanganate, which prevents the formation of pathogenic microflora.
Subsequent watering is done according to the technology described above.
When faced with acidification of the soil, which is manifested in the drying of the top, yellowing on the edges of the foliage and the formation of a light deposit on the soil, it is necessary to take prompt measures to eliminate the death of sprouts. In this case, the plant can not fully soak up the moisture and beneficial trace elements from the soil, respectively, the root system begins to feed at the expense of the aerial part of the seedlings. The reason is an excess of moisture when watering with water containing impurities and chlorine or an excess of fertilizers.
As soon as yellow and white spots are found on the soil surface, a recovery is required, which requires:
- remove the top layer of soil;
- pour new soil;
- organize watering with rain or melt water;
- limit the introduction of dressings to 1 time in 2-3 weeks.
In the absence of the ability to collect melt water, you can defend the usual from the tap.
Deficiency of nutrients
Seedlings suffer from a lack of trace elements, which is manifested in the form of drying of the top, a bright shade on the leaf plate, its yellowing and falling off. It is not necessary to immediately introduce a high-concentration feeding. It is necessary to identify the cause of the symptoms:
- Lack of nitrogen - light small spots on the upper leaflets, followed by complete fall.
- Potassium deficiency - drying of the upper leaflets at the edges.
- Lack of zinc - narrowing and wrinkling the top. In the absence of measures to combat the problem of greens dies in the shortest possible time.
- The lack of boron - neurosis of the top of the sprouts, the formation of yellowness on the new leaves.
- Iron deficiency - discoloration of green mass, stem. Noticeable dying off the top.
To replenish the balance of microelements, you need to use a fertilizer that contains a component that is lacking:
- Nitrogen - you can use rotted manure diluted in water 1/10 or chicken droppings with water 1/20.
- Iron - watering with iron chelate, combined with water 5 g / 5 l.
- Potassium - use wood ash with water at a concentration of 50 g / 1 l. First use boiling water. Infuse the solution for 24 hours, then add 5 liters of water.
- Boron - spray boric acid.
- Zinc - conduct foliar feeding from zinc sulphate and water 5 g / 1 bucket.
Tomatoes require good lighting, but young seedlings are dangerous contact with the direct rays of the sun. This provokes the appearance of light spots and drying of the top of the foliage. This is the case when planting sprouts on a flower bed, and the reason is the lack of early hardening of the plant, which can improve immunity to pathogenic microflora and the external environment.
Diseases and pests
The top and leaves of a seedling tomato dries out when a fungal disease or pest attacks form.
- Black leg - the most dangerous disease that occurs at the initial stage of growing sprouts. Symptoms - the appearance of blackness at the base of the stem. This provokes excessive watering, short daylight hours, high planting density, improperly prepared soil. Solution: shed seedlings with a drug called Maxim or Previkur, which blocks the development of the disease. Next, plant sprouts in separate containers with a clean and healthy soil.
- Septoria. Symptoms are black spots and gray spots on the top and foliage. The result is complete drying and subsidence. The cause of infection is unprocessed and contaminated soil.
- Late blight. Signs: dark spots on the top and leaf plate, followed by rapid growth, embracing the stem, drying out of the green and shedding.The reason is the use of infected seeds, improper handling of the container for planting, contaminated soil.
- Brown spot. Symptoms - brownish spots, extensive distribution and drying of leaves at the top. The reason is an increased level of air humidity and regular waterlogging.
In the last three cases, treatment with fungicides is required.
If a seedling disease occurs, measures should be taken as quickly as possible, since seedlings can die in less than a day.
For the cultivation of healthy seedlings of tomatoes need to try hard. Any disregard of the recommendations of experts can cause the loss of all shoots. You need to familiarize yourself with the preferences of a particular type of culture and adhere to the rules prescribed above.