Insoluble organic compounds synthesized by tomatoes during fruit ripening have a high level of carotenoid-lycopene. The pigment has a high antioxidant activity, has a positive effect on the human body.
After conducting a large number of studies, chemical scientists have found that the pigment content in the human body depends on the amount of the substance in food. The properties of lycopene make it an effective prophylactic and drug in the fight against:
- defeat of the upper layers of the skin and nails with fungi of the genus Epidermophyta;
- ringworm smooth skin of the body;
- chronic disease caused by a fungus of the genus Sporotrichium, affecting the skin and subcutaneous tissue;
- typhoid fever;
- food toxicoinfection;
- violation of the vessels and capillaries;
- initial fibrosis of the liver;
- cavernous hemangioma of the liver;
- negative effects on the human body of free radicals;
- angina pectoris;
- ischemic heart disease;
- cerebrovascular pathologies of the heart muscle;
- heart failure;
- oxidation of the low-level lipoprotein;
- a malignant tumor that develops from prostate cells;
- violation of intestinal microflora;
- body imbalance and carotenoid deficiency in the body with frequent use of alcohol;
- blocking the process of spermatogenesis;
- chronic hyperglycemia, resulting from a violation of the interaction of insulin with tissue cells;
- age-related lack of collagen in the body;
- deterioration in Alzheimer's disease;
- affective seasonal disorders;
- age pigment spots;
- patches of faded skin on the legs;
- dysplastic pigmented nevi;
- keloid scars;
- basal cell carcinoma;
- hair loss in men due to an excess of dihydrotestosterone;
- thinning of bone mass;
- increased bone fragility;
- dystrophic bone lesions;
- ankylosing spondylitis;
- tumor lesions of the musculoskeletal system;
- imperfect osteogenesis;
- Paget's disease.
The maximum absorption of lycopene occurs only when the joint use of tomatoes with foods rich in fat.
Characteristics and volume in fruits
The main elements of lycopene with antioxidant qualities are alpha, beta and gamma carotenoids. Substances having the same molecular formula and different properties are distinguished by the structure of cycloparaffins and biological activity. Elements do not dissolve in water at all, volatilizing only under the influence of organic solvents: benzene, fats and oils.
Tomatoes that can be cooked contain seven times more carotenoid than fresh ones. And when choosing fruits, it should be remembered that the darker their color is, the more useful substance they contain.Since the body is not able to produce pigment alone, tomatoes must be present in the diet of each person.
A peculiarity of tomatoes is that lycopene contained in mature fruits contains an increased amount of phytochemical compounds. As well as the fact that under the influence of high temperatures, the element-lycopene is not only not destroyed, but changes the structure of molecules, is better absorbed by the body. The pigment content in 100 g of product:
- red tomato - from 2.50 mg to 2.60 mg;
- ketchup - from 10 mg to 12 mg;
- tomato paste - from 75 mg to 80 mg.
Before starting a therapeutic effect on the body, lycopene accumulates in the small intestine, starting treatment at the cellular level only after 25-30 days.
Lycopene content in tomato varieties
Yellow tomatoes have the lowest lycopene content; fruits red and orange color, high - pink, brown and purple tomatoes. The concentration of the substance in tomatoes depends on the degree of ripeness of the fruit and the time of year.
|Sort, hybrid||The amount of lycopene per 100 g product, in mg|
|Minigold SEMO, variety of determinant tomato, cherry type||2, 09|
|De - Barao yellow, late ripe, tall variety||2, 25|
|Lemon giant, large-fruited indeterminant variety for greenhouses and open ground||2, 40|
|Bullish heart is yellow, mid-season large-fruited variety||2, 60|
|Golden nut, early undersized variety||2, 15|
|Shedi Lady F1, early, high-yielding, determinant hybrid||2, 70|
|Mikado is red, indeterminant stem type||2, 80|
|Bagheera F1, determinant early ripe hybrid||2, 80|
|Thick F1, Early Indeterminate Hybrid||2, 75|
|Volgograd, medium early undersized variety||2, 80|
|Cap Monomakh, mid season tall variety||2, 90|
|Bull's heart is red, medium tall variety of salad type||2, 90|
|De barao red tall late ripe variety||2, 70|
|De Barao pink, tall late variety||2, 95|
|Raspberry ringing, determinant middle-early variety||3, 0|
|Pink cheeks, determinant early ripe grade||3, 0|
|Pink plum, early indeterminantny grade||2, 95|
|Pink giant, mid-season non-petaled variety||3, 0|
|Sugar Brown, medium late tall salad variety||3, 60|
|Moor F1, Indeterminant Early Hybrid||3, 60|
|Black Prince, tall medium early variety||3, 80|
|Brown ribbed, large-fruited mid-season tall variety||3, 80|
|Mulatto, semi-determinant variety of salad destination||3, 80|
Pigment is dangerous for smokers. Interacting with nicotine, the element is oxidized, turning into a free radical.
Varieties with maximum lycopene content
Tomatoes with dark purple and black color of the fruit, have a lot of advantages over red and yellow tomatoes due to the increased content of alpha, beta and gamma carotenoids. In the original color is painted not only the skin, but also the flesh of the fruit. The color of such unique tomatoes varies from light brown to black-violet color scheme. The process of producing unusual pigments provides anthocyanin and lycopene. Most lycopene, reaching 5 mg-6 mg per 100 g of pulp, is found in tomato varieties:
- Purple Cognac;
- Purple Wessel;
- Afternoon delight;
- Alice's dream;
- Blue Dragon;
- Amethyst jewel;
- Beautiful dreamer;
- Violet heart;
- Purple pumpkin.
For the prevention and treatment of a large number of diseases, it is necessary to use tomatoes containing lycopene. However, it should be remembered that only those tomatoes that are grown at home without the use of chemistry.