Organic fertilizer obtained as a result of the activity of worms is called vermicompost or humus. Recycled manure heap becomes a valuable plant food. Universal complex additive is suitable for all plants and different types of soil.
Foliage, grass, needles, branches, mushrooms, cones - all natural material rot and is eaten by worms. Organic matter is processed in the intestines and released into the soil, these excrements are called coprolites. Humus is well absorbed by plants. On 1 square of the earth should be at least 5-6 worms. A smaller number or lack of them indicates a low fertility of the soil.
Ecological universal fertilizer contains:
- growth hormones;
The key to growing tasty and large tomatoes is their regular feeding. At each stage of development, tomato ...
Benefits and advantages of biohumus
Humus does not clog the soil. Unlike manure, vermicompost can be used for seed and seedling. Tea is safe for humans and animals. Nitrogen in biohumus contains more than humus.
The benefits for tomatoes:
- raises seedlings;
- accelerates rooting and survival of plants;
- stimulates flowering;
- enriches the earth with nutrients;
- fruits ripen faster;
- increases yield;
- raises the quality of vegetables and their taste;
- strengthens the immune system;
- reduces the content of nitrates;
- limits the entry of harmful metals and radionuclides;
- helps to fight pests and diseases;
- eliminates chlorosis;
- does not contain larvae and pest eggs;
- shown for annual use.
The bactericidal properties of humus appear due to bacteriostatic proteins that worms secrete. In their intestines are symbiotic microbes that produce natural antibiotics. Vermicompos contains humic compounds, aerobic organisms, water-soluble substances.
- phosphate-dissolving and potassium-dissolving organisms secrete organic acids, due to which they dissolve phosphates in the soil;
- nitrogen-fixing bacteria, symotic and non-symbotic;
- mycorrhizal fungi create a connection of the rhizome with the environment, increase the growth of tomatoes, increase resistance to disease;
- Cellulolytic organisms break down complex carbohydrates - lignin and cellulose.
It is proved that biohumus suppresses phytophotogens that cause diseases: late blight, Fusarium, Bel, black leg, wilt, spotting.
Humus is absorbed by plants by 90%.
The finished product can be purchased at a specialty store. It contains 40% humus, 1.2% potassium, 3% nitrogen supplements, 5% magnesium, 5% phosphorus and calcium. In small quantities there is manganese, boron, zinc, copper.
How to make vermikompostny tea
Vermichay is a soluble dry biohumus containing all useful substances. It is called worm tea.The soluble substance is used for processing fruit trees after flowering, fruit bushes during the formation of buds, vegetables and house plants.
The use of vermiche of biohumus for tomatoes makes the fruit sweeter, tastier, increases the mass of tomatoes, increases the yield. Biohumus with land mulching leads to an increase in yield by 30% and fruit ripening two weeks earlier.
Can be used to make coprolites of ordinary dung-worms. But the best species for creating vermicompost is the Russian Moscow Hybrid and the Red Californian worm.
To build a vertical box need two cubes. They are set on each other. Capacity is better to put in a shaded place. Put the mesh on the bottom. Worms, crawling into the upper cube, in the lower one will leave the ready-made substrate. Be sure to need a canopy of rain. Below the grid have a container to collect the useful liquid, suitable pan.
Dry hay is placed in the lower section and compacted. You can add coconut fiber. Worms are sent to the hay with food. From above, a small layer of manure is applied up to 2-3 cm. After 2-3 days, small organic waste is added. The prepared mixture is periodically watered, gently mixed and lightly tamped. Do not use meat waste, large cleaning fruits and vegetables.
To maintain the acid balance, it is recommended to add chopped egg shells. It is enclosed once a month.
To check whether the substrate is moistened, a handful of mass is squeezed from the box in the hand. If, when pressed lightly, moisture flows out, the compost is too wet. Moderate moisture - when a strong compression of the substrate appears liquid droplets.
- In a bucket of cold water pour a glass of biohumus, mix thoroughly.
- Leave the solution to infuse for 22-25 hours at a temperature of 18-20 degrees. At higher temperatures, 25-30 degrees accelerates the cooking process up to 12 hours.
To be effective, tomato seeds are left in this solution for 10-12 hours. For the nutritional composition suitable rainwater, snow or water from the well. If there is no such water, then use filtered, separated, without chlorine liquid.
Tea recipe from Valery Medvedev
Feeding on manure substrate, worms secrete coprolites. They can exist only in a humid environment of 70-80%. The mixture is periodically loosened.
- to make a small chervyatnik - a wooden box with a half-lid volume;
- cover is not tight, need access to air, worms do not like light;
- put in the box food waste, rotted manure;
- collect manure worms and run them in a container with waste (worms from the soil and burrows are not suitable);
- on -2 of the cube should be about 1500-2000 individuals;
- the mixture must constantly be watered with separated water, and preferably rain, twice a week;
- with an increase in the number of worms start to get tea - drain the excess liquid in a bucket, it has a dark brown color;
- Pour into plastic bottles and store in a dark, cool place.
Vermicompost recipe from Marina Rykalina
- in a container of 1.5 liters of warm water (without chlorine) add a tablespoon of vermicompost, mix thoroughly;
- for the reproduction of bacteria make a teaspoon of sugar;
- stir and leave to stand for a day at room temperature;
- do not cover the lid, bacteria need oxygen;
- Add 1 g of humic potash fertilizer, stir and water the tomato seedlings.
If the water is slightly colored, then vermicompost is real, if the liquid is strongly colored, then the preparation is fake.
For making tea, homemade vermicompost is used - a bucket of water per 1 kg of biohumus. Within 24 hours the mass is constantly interfered.If there is an aquarium compressor, the air can be pumped without interfering with the solution.
Application of vermica
For tomato seedlings produce supplementary food by watering or spraying, as well as introduce food into the soil. Do it in the morning or evening, in the heat of the tea will not benefit. It is better to use the solution the first 2-4 hours after production. Do not water the bushes with tea at air temperatures below 14-15 degrees.
The seed material is soaked for 18-20 hours until complete swelling, tea is diluted with water 1:20. Soaking provides good survival rate and rooting of seeds, fast germination.
Fertilize the first time tomatoes in 5-7 days after planting seedlings. Root top dressing is made with a solution of 1:50. On one bush there is 1 l of funds or a bucket of mortar per square plot. The foliage mass increases and photosynthesis processes increase. Grapes, fruit trees and shrubs are fed in the spring on a young leaf.
The second fertilizer is applied in the formation of ovaries, the proportion of 1:10. It allows you to save the ovaries and protect them from falling off, increase the weight of the tomatoes and their storage period.
Aerated compost tea (ACC) is called energy for vegetables, although its beneficial effect does not extend ...
For spraying vermichay diluted 1: 100. Consumption of the drug 2 liters per 1 hundred square meters of land. To prevent the disease, spray the product onto the bushes once every 10 days. The foliage is treated with a solution unlimited. The main thing is to make fresh tea every time. Spraying of soil is carried out twice per season - autumn and spring. In case of slower growth of vegetation, the agent is applied once every 10 days. The use of biohumus in tomatoes increases stress resistance, resistance to disease, improves the quality of the fruit.
Leaves need to be processed on both sides.
For irrigation using a shoulder or hand sprayer. Before you pour the solution it is carefully filtered. For watering you will need a regular watering can and solution. If all conditions are observed correctly, then microorganisms will live long in the earth and reproduce.
In addition to vermica they use coprolites of worms. Vermicompost is interesting in that it can be used in its pure form without diluting it. Organic additives are used in small quantities.
- Spread a layer of biohumus around tomato bushes, a layer up to 1 cm, cover with mulch and water, the procedure is not more than 1 time per month.
- For seeds, prepare a mixture: mix coprolites with rotted compost and coconut fiber, the ratio is 1: 3: 1.
- For indoor plants, combine 2 parts of compost and a part of vermicompot.
- Under the crown of the trees, scatter the coprolites, mulch the surface, and water. Watering do 2 times a year.
Vermichay need to use within 2 days after production. Aerobic microorganisms quickly absorb oxygen. If the tea is not equipped with air, the microbes will die or fall asleep. When oxygen is supplied, some of them come to life. The longer the product remains without ventilation, the lower its effectiveness. After 4-5 hours of stagnation, the loss of germs is 40-50%.
With a strong smell vermichay becomes poisonous!
Canned solution is not as useful as fresh. When preserved, many organisms die and the effect of using tea will be different. Some gardeners recommend freezing vermichay. The benefit from it will be much less than from the freshly prepared solution.
Do not throw vermichay until he fermented and did not smell bad. Weed grass is sprayed with fermented agent; it prevents the growth of weeds.