If you plan to grow grapes in the country, get ready for the fact that you have to work hard and read a lot. It is not enough to choose a variety suitable for the climatic conditions of your region, it is also important to know at what time, in which place, how to plant grapes and how to care for the vine so that after a couple of years on the shoots, among the foliage, you can find ripe berries with nutmeg taste.
- 1 Where to plant grapes on the site
- 2 Soil preparation
- 3 How to choose a seedling and plant it
- 4 When to plant grapes in spring
- 5 Autumn landing
- 6 How to care for a vineyard
- 7 Conclusion
- 8 Reviews
Where to plant grapes on the site
Grapes are a heat-loving plant, it will not grow in the shade, therefore, when choosing a ridge, special attention should be paid to the southern part of the garden, where the sun warms from morning to evening. It is this place that the rising sun begins to warm the surface with its rays in the first place. In addition, there should be no drafts on the selected ridge. Due to the cold gusts of wind, the vine will begin to wither and soon have to be dug up and disposed of, you should not expect yields from such a bush. An important role in good vineyard growth is played by moderate soil moisture. If your summer cottage is located near a pond or lake, then grape cuttings should be planted on a small hill, away from water. Otherwise, the root system may rot from stagnation of water.
A place for the vineyard has been chosen; now it is time to prepare the land for new seedlings. For berry shrubs, a fertile, but rocky, type of soil is suitable. In it, the percentage of stagnation of water is reduced, respectively, the level of accumulation of salts and lime will be minimal. Some grape varieties take root better in sandy-clay soil. Therefore, choose a grape variety for planting, based on the composition of the land on the plot.
Soil preparation begins a month before the expected date of planting cuttings. First, weeds and debris left over from last year are removed from the beds. After that, each square meter is dug up with 10 kg of manure, which is initially mixed with 150-200 g of wood ash. A couple of days after the harrowing, the dug up area is leveled, beds 30-40 cm high and up to 1 m wide are built. Around the ridges, walls can be built, they will decorate the site and keep the bed in its original form.
Grape shoots every month add a few centimeters or meters in length. In order for the vineyard to curl up beautifully, metal or wooden trellises are installed for it, which can be purchased at any specialized store or made independently. Columns of the support are buried in the soil to a depth of not less than half a meter and compact the earth around them.
Two weeks before planting cuttings begin to prepare beds. First of all, dig holes with a depth and a width of up to half a meter. The distance between the pits is usually done as follows: a low-growing variety - 3 meters, vigorous - 4 meters.About 3 buckets of gravel, sand or gravel are poured on the bottom of the excavated recess with an even layer, 2 buckets of humus, a pound of superphosphate, 1 kg of ash and a bucket of fertile soil are poured on top.
How to choose a seedling and plant it
In order for a seedling to take root on your site, you first need to choose the variety that you want to grow. If you live in the central zone and want to grow southern grapes, most likely you will succeed, because the climatic conditions and soil composition from your summer cottage should be suitable for the plant. Planting material usually acquire two years of age, it is better to take root in a new place and after a year or two - it will be able to bear fruit.
When buying cuttings, special attention is paid to the appearance of the plant. They should not be visible damage, such as: brown spots or deep scratches. Before planting, seedlings for the vineyard are treated by removing damaged roots and upper branches. Leave only the lower node of the root system, all other lateral shoots are cut off so that they do not interfere when planting seedlings in open ground. Before planting, the seedlings are taken outside and left to lie in a place protected from the wind all day. Air procedures last 4-5 days. Such hardening will prevent the death of grapes from hypothermia.
Planting grapes in chernozem and clay
A seedling is carefully inserted into the well with fertilizers and the root system is adjusted so that during active growth it does not stretch to the sun, but spread to the sides. The hole is filled up with 20 cm of fertile soil, water is poured into a 30 l pit, warmed up under sunlight. Watering is needed in order to compact the soil and moisten the roots. Half an hour after watering, the remaining soil is poured into the hole. Watering the plants again and loosening the soil to a depth of 10 cm. In a week, the procedure with water and loosening is repeated twice. For the last time after agro-reception, the earth is mulched. It is better to plant grapes in the ground at sunrise or sunset, so that the scorching rays do not damage the plant.
Planting grapes in sandy soil
Growing a vine in sandy soil is much more difficult. The sun's rays quickly warm the sand. However, the heat of the sun does not last long and the sandy surface cools at night or when weather conditions change. With constant changes in temperature, the root system will die, so if your soil contains sandy matter in your garden, then be patient and follow our tips:
- Dig a hole with a depth of 1 - 1.2 m.
- At the bottom of the recess, lay a 20 cm layer of dense clay.
- Sprinkle a 25 cm layer of organic fertilizer.
- Plant the seedling to a depth of 50-60 cm.
- Fill the roots with earth.
- Water the plant once a week.
- Pour at least 40 liters of water under each bush.
How to plant grape seedlings during the growing season
Vegetable seedlings are planted in open ground only in spring, at the moment when green leaves appear on young shoots. The ridge is prepared in the same way as for annual seedlings. Before planting, the green shoot is abundantly watered with water, then a polyethylene “pot” is cut and the seedling, together with a lump of earth, is transferred to a prepared pit. The stem with the root system is covered with a layer of earth with fertilizers to the leaves. Escape tied to a peg. In the process of active growth, the two lower leaves are removed and the soil is poured into the recess.
When to plant grapes in spring
A spring planting does not have specific numbers for planting plants in open ground, because in each region the climatic conditions are different and the degree of warming up of a land plot largely depends on the location of the cottage.The farther south the garden is, the earlier grapes are planted. Make no mistakes and correctly calculate the landing time, the weather will help. Planting of seedlings is carried out at an air temperature of more than +16 degrees, and soil more than +10 degrees, and only after the retreat of night frosts. According to these criteria, we can conclude that in the south of Russia the optimum temperature regime falls at the end of March, in the middle zone — mid-April or early May, and the northern regions — late May or mid-June.
Pros of spring planting
The vine loves warmth, so spring planting allows the bushes to grow stronger before the onset of cold weather and it is easier to transfer the harsh climatic conditions in the winter. In addition, most of the varieties planted in the spring begin to bear fruit the next year. In the spring, it is more convenient to engage in agriculture, especially for beginner growers, because in the flowering season it is easier to predict the weather and it is easier to determine the day of planting.
The most common problem that occurs during the period of planting bushes is a lack of moisture to the roots. The plant needs regular watering, especially if the bushes are planted in sandy soil. Also at this time in the markets there is a shortage of grape seedlings. The likelihood of buying a low-quality planting product grows significantly. It is better to purchase planting material in the fall, when healthy and young shoots with a root system lie on the shelves.
In autumn, grapes are planted after the general cleaning of the garden area. The optimum temperature for autumn farming is +15 degrees. In the central strip and to the north, the garden is harvested before the end of September, so they begin to grow vineyards from the beginning of October. In the south, the last crop is harvested until mid-October, and grape bushes are planted in late October or early November. Shoots should be planted before the first frost. After planting, the grapes are covered with agro material so as not to freeze the seedlings.
In autumn, plants are prepared for sale, so an abundance of healthy and strong bushes of different varieties can be found on the market in the fall. In addition, after harvesting in the garden, the earth was saturated with natural elements and vitamins, which is very important for the growth of new planting material. During the winter, seedlings have time to take root, and with the advent of spring they will immediately go to growth, bypassing the period of adaptation.
A sharp decrease in temperature is not best reflected on the sprouts, sometimes such climatic conditions can destroy the plant. Be sure to plant bushes in open ground, they must be covered with a film cover so that the vine is warm in winter. Having planted a vineyard under the autumn leaf fall, you should not wait for the harvest for the coming year. You can taste the taste of the first berries not earlier than in a couple of years.
How to care for a vineyard
In order for the plant to bring a good harvest, you need to take care of it in a timely manner. Also, the planted grape bush, without proper care, it will quickly die, and all your efforts will be in vain. The requirements for the bushes are very simple: water, protect from pests and diseases, protect from adverse external factors, prune grape shoots and leaves.
Watering and spraying
Shrubs are watered twice a week, provided that rainy weather is rare in summer. Under each bush, pour at least 10 liters of settled water at room temperature. After watering, the soil layer around the vines is loosened and mulched. Spraying the vine with 1% Bordeaux liquid as a preventive measure will prevent the infection of the vineyard with fungal diseases. Soap solution, which is prepared from a grated bar of laundry soap and 10 liters of water, will help get rid of small pests.In the first two weeks after spring planting, the sprouts protect against direct sunlight.
During planting, a sufficient amount of fertilizer was introduced into the ground, this top dressing will be enough for the roots for 2-3 years. If desired, you can reinforce the bushes at the end of the summer period with the following composition: potassium sulphate - 10 g; superphosphate - 20 g. The specified amount of chemical elements is mixed in one container and sprinkled with 1 mixture of the resulting mixture. m of land. Thus, the plant is better prepared for wintering.
Immediately after planting, cut the vine to 2 eyes. Growing shrubs in this way, you yourself will adjust the desired direction of growth of young shoots. You need to trim the grapes every year and preferably on 3-5 upper buds. The risk of developing fungal diseases will increase if the foliage of the berry bush is not trimmed in time. Everything else, spraying thick plants is much more difficult, which means that pests will not bypass this vine.
Following all the above planting technologies and the stages of growing grapes at home, you can effortlessly create your own vineyard and enjoy the harvest every year. And if planting material was originally planted near the arbor and gradually wrap it around the vine, then next summer a truly fabulous place will appear at your dacha where it will be nice to drink tea on summer evenings.
The first time I tried to plant the vine in the fall, and immediately ran into the problem of where to plant the grapes on the site. As a result, I chose the sunniest place. After planting the vineyard, the weather quickly deteriorated and all the grape shoots froze. In the spring, dry bushes had to be dug up and new grape varieties planted instead. This time I was more fortunate, the grapes took root well over the summer and calmly wintered. Now in my garden clusters with large berries begin to appear. The only mistake I made was to plant two varieties with different degrees of maturity nearby. It’s inconvenient to pick berries, but I can boast of a good harvest.
My neighbors plant grapevine sprouts at different times of the year and constantly argue about where it is best to plant a vineyard. For the experiment, I decided to plant grapes in the spring and in the autumn for a bathhouse on the sunny side. A year later, spring grapes earlier acquired new shoots than autumn grapes, and even berries, appeared earlier in grapevines planted in spring. Now I will plant bushes of grape culture only in the spring, because in care it is much easier and takes root faster.