In late winter and early spring, gardeners and gardeners begin preparatory work for planting seeds to grow seedlings. Primarily determined with varieties of tomatoes.
In the south of Russia, Ukraine, both early varieties and late varieties will be suitable for growing, due to the early and warm spring, hot summer and favorable weather conditions in the autumn. This does not apply to risky farming zones, such as the Tyumen, Irkutsk regions, Omsk, Altai Krai, the Urals and Siberia. Here, for sowing and cultivation, it is worthwhile to acquire only local zoned early tomato varieties.
Tomatoes have a long growing season, and seeds planted directly into the soil can only yield in the absence of winter or in heated greenhouses, therefore, starting from Belarus and ending with Tyumen, they are grown through seedlings. On the timing of planting each variety can be found on the back of the package. Early varieties sow 60-65 days before planting seedlings in the ground or under the shelter. Later - for 65-75 days. Also take into account the time required for seed germination. Take into account the growing conditions of tomato bush. When grown in a greenhouse, seeds can be sown 2 weeks earlier than for planting in open ground.
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Landing in southern regions and Ukraine
In the southern areas, in the presence of a greenhouse, sow tomatoes in boxes for seedlings in late January - early February. By mid-April, seedlings are ready for planting in greenhouses. If the seedlings are planted to be planted in open ground, the sowing dates are postponed by 2.3 weeks. In addition, the time for sowing different varieties differ. The development process of the bush and fruiting in the earliest occurs much faster, so they can be sown a little later than the average and late varieties of tomatoes. Hybrids and superearly varieties sown in mid-March.
When landing in January seedlings need artificial lighting, otherwise the gardener will not receive quality seedlings.
In the Moscow region and middle lane planting on seedlings produced in March, based on the early maturity or late maturity of each type of tomato. Sowing superearly varieties is shifted to the beginning - mid-April. The grown seedlings are planted in greenhouses in early May, in greenhouses under light shelter - in the middle and end of May, and in open ground in early June, when the threat of night and morning temperature drops is passed. For the greenhouse choose mostly tall tomatoes, and for outdoor - low. In the open ground, high tomatoes can break the wind, rain, hail. And undersized do not always need a garter, have a thick stem that can resist the effects of rain and wind.
Ural and Siberia
In the conditions of the Urals and in Siberia, morning frosts are possible until the first decade of June.For this reason, in these areas are not in a hurry with the early planting of tomatoes. If you count 60 days from this date, then you should plant tomatoes on seedlings in early April, and choose only early hybrids suitable for planting for this area. Tall tomatoes, which are usually late-ripening, are usually not grown in these areas. They require a lot of space and greenhouse heating. In the open ground in these areas, thermophilic tomatoes are difficult to grow.
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Seed and soil preparation for planting
Even if the right varieties of tomatoes have been bought and the right day has been selected for planting, gardeners pay the necessary attention to seed and soil preparation for a decent harvest. Seeds before planting soaked in any of the solutions:
- take equal amounts of aloe juice and water, soaked for 24 hours;
- 1 drop phytosporin add to ½ cup of water, immersed in a solution wrapped in gauze seed, for 1 hour;
- Prepare a 15% solution of potassium permanganate and keep it in gauze with seeds for 20 minutes.
- spill a solution of potassium permanganate (3 g KMnO4 per 10 liters of water);
- calcined in the oven for 40-45 minutes;
- soak in the cold for 5 days.
Do not collect the land under the oaks and chestnuts due to an overabundance of tannins in it.
The prepared soil is placed in boxes or other containers, watered, shallow grooves are made with a match and seeds are placed at a distance of 1 cm from each other. Top sprinkled with dry earth or sand. Lightly spray the surface with a spray bottle. Closed cellophane package and clean in a warm place, occasionally airing. After 5-7 days, loops appear above the ground. The package is removed and put the boxes with seedlings in the scattered sunlight.
The influence of lunar phases on the growth of tomatoes
With the help of the lunar calendar, the gardener determines the most favorable dates for planting and caring for garden crops and obtaining a higher yield. Lunar month is the amount of time for which the moon goes around the earth, making a full circle. There are several moon phases:
- New moon. Time for planting seeds and seedlings and slowing the growth of the aerial parts of plants ..
- Full moon. Period suitable for planting root crops and harvesting.
- Waning moon. The supply of power to the trunk and root system is enhanced.
- Waxing Crescent. Period for planting seeds.
Gardeners should be aware that when the moon grows, the seeds of plants are planted, in which the crop is harvested above the ground, and when it is declining - the seeds of plants that produce an underground crop (potatoes, carrots, radish). You can also sow seeds on seedlings with a full moon and a few days later, then the growth of the roots of the plant will coincide with the waning moon, which has a positive effect on the development of the tomato bush.
Gardeners who want to plant tomatoes for seedlings in 2019 according to the lunar calendar can determine the planting time by looking at the table and correlate dates with the weather conditions of the region in which they live.
|Month||Favorable days||Unfavorable days|
If for some reason the gardener does not have time to plant seeds on suitable days, he successfully does it on neutral days - not prohibited for planting.
Days suitable for caring for tomatoes
Pick up seedlings of tomatoes produced when she has 2-3 true leaves. This occurs approximately 2 weeks after seed germination. The seedlings shorten the root a little and transplant each sprout into a separate container, preferably in peat pots.Plants directly in them subsequently land on a permanent place in the ground. According to the lunar calendar, the most suitable for picks will be:
- March 15–16,21,22;
- in April from 11 to 13.
Good seedlings without feeding do not grow. She needs strength to grow, set leaf mass and flowering. Fertilize sprouts twice. To do this, take a complex fertilizer in a dose that is half less than recommended on the package and produce additional feeding:
- April 4,12,18,26;
- May 3.8.10.
For 10-14 days, tomatoes begin to harden. They are carried out for half an hour to sunlight and to an unheated balcony, accustomed to sunlight and lowering the temperature. Then every day procedures increase in time. Tomato seedlings are planted in a greenhouse or soil at a time when it reaches a height of 20-30 cm and has 6-8 leaves. The plant is first shed, then the wells are made, and they are shed by the method of transshipment with the preservation of an earthy coma planted for permanent residence. On top of the ground lightly tamped and mulched with compost, dry grass. In the greenhouses, according to the lunar calendar, seedlings are transplanted on April 17, 28, and 29. In the greenhouses you can plant seedlings 3.9.12 May.
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Young tomato plants are watered a week after planting the seedlings. You can navigate on these days:
- May 27-29;
- June 9,2,2,2,27;
- July 6,17,29.
After 10-14 days, the shoots from the lateral sinuses begin to grow strongly in the planted seedlings. To avoid bush thickening, yield reduction and the occurrence of phytophthora, they should be removed, leaving a small stump to prevent re-growth of the stepsons. If you take a landmark on the lunar calendar, then this procedure should be done on June 8, 19, 20, 24, 29.
But the weather in different regions is different and dictates the very rules of irrigation, pasynkovaniya and fertilizing. The gardener himself has to adjust the dates depending on weather conditions.
Planting seedlings in the greenhouse, greenhouse and open ground
Few can afford a heated greenhouse, but if it is available, they supply themselves with vitamin greens 8 months a year. Even weak and underdeveloped shoots are planted in such greenhouses. In good conditions, and they will give a good harvest. In unheated polycarbonate or film greenhouse seedlings are planted at the age of 50 to 65 days. It will save from small sub-zero temperatures, wind and cold rain. In such greenhouses can be obtained in the areas of high-risk farming.
In greenhouses, covered with lutrasil and cellophane film, seedlings can be planted a week earlier than in open ground, but when the sun is bright, the seedlings are subject to burning, due to the small space inside that heats up very quickly. It is necessary to open a greenhouse every morning, and close or leave gaps in the evening for airing. Strong, untreated seedlings are planted in the open ground in early June, when there will not be sub-zero temperature drops. But this method of growing tomatoes is possible in the middle lane, in the Moscow region and southern regions.
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What to do, if tomato seedlings stretched out and very thin?
To plant overgrown and thin seedlings, it is necessary to dig not the holes, but small trenches in which the bush is laid entirely and covered with earth, leaving the tip about 25 cm long on the surface. Such planting will save the plant from fracture, increase the root system, which, in turn, will enable the aboveground part to get more nutrients.
What to do, if seedlings are yellow and dry?
The reason for the yellowing of the leaves may be several:
- Most likely, the seedlings were attacked by thrips.They gnaw the veins of the leaves, because of what is yellowing and drying of the foliage. Seedlings need to be treated with Fufanon, Actellix, Aktar.
- Lack of dressings. The leaves turn yellow due to a lack of macro and microelements.
- Bad care. To it can be attributed to poor watering or, on the contrary, the Gulf of seedlings with water, the content in the sun, in a draft.
What if the seedlings bloomed at home on the windowsill?
This question has no definite answer. Some gardeners are strongly advised to cut off all the flowers and limit the tomato in the watering and dressing and put on an unheated balcony to slow the development. Others see nothing wrong with that and plant plants with flowers in the ground, removing only double flowers. But they also claim that large fruits from such buds cannot be obtained, because the bush is not fully formed and cannot provide the first flowers with all the nourishment.
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What if the seedlings fall?
The most common cause is black leg infection due to excess watering and stagnant water. The stem of the seedlings darkens near the ground and dries out. The plant falls. In such cases, experienced gardeners immediately transplant healthy sprouts into another container with a new soil and process them with Fundazole, Fitosporin, Baktofit. Diseased plants are removed to prevent the spread of the disease.
What to do, if the seedlings outgrow?
Plants are placed in more stringent growing conditions: reduce watering and feeding, produce hardening. If before landing in the ground for more than 2 weeks, overgrown tomatoes are cut tops, put in a jar of water. After some time, it appears roots. But the disadvantage of this method is the postponement of the terms of fruiting. If tomatoes only slightly outgrown, they are simply planted deeper or laid during planting, as is the case with highly stretched seedlings.
Following the advice of the lunar calendar for planting, caring and growing tomatoes, gardeners get seedlings that are more resistant to diseases and grow a decent crop.